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Nature  franch Espain

Great Names

To My Master  Espain franch

Universe and World



Natural and Political Law

National Hymn Brazil


Legal Theory



Philosophy and Psychology

The History of Mathematics

History of Numeration

The Universe and the Man        Espain Franch

Thesis – Medicine





Ophthalmology Espain



The Earth and the Moon








Initiation to Music

Weighty Personalities

Mús Score



The West

The West Map

The East English Arabian

The East Map


Cultural Events

National Dates


Poetry of the month

Thought of the Day

Tips to Write






Sacra Literature

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History of the Saints

Santo do Dia









Paris, França  - Symbolic blackout   in defense of the planet, at 02.01.2007

Concentrations of  CO2 in the atmosphere were not so  high 650 years ago


In  February 2nd., 2007,  through the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC),  the UN   divulged in Paris, France, a report elaborated for 2.500 scientists of 130 countries, where  they disclose that the global heating is irreversible and “very probably” provoked for the human beings activities.

                                   It stops backwards  escapes of information, pressures and  symbolic black-outs  in some european  cities , as in Paris,  with Eiffel  Tower in the center of the darkness, that was convoked on behalf of the planet, in February 1st., 2007.
                                    According to the  team of scientists, that includes american and european investigators, the level of the oceans went up 3,3 millimeters per year, between 1993 and 2006, and this ascent was faster 25% of what in any another period in  the last 115 years, guarantees the investigators in the  “Science”.

                                   A summary of 15 pages of the document, whose content was negotiated word to  word in the before days  among  the 500 scientists of the panel,  was delivered to the most important world-wide politicians. And what  is there does not leave  any doubt margin. Almost absolute certainty  that the global heating (90%) has as root cause the human being action and the average increase of the globe temperature of the atmosphere between 1,8 and 4 degrees Celsius up to 2100 is two of the data that the IPCC announced that day.

                                   In its last report, published in 2001, the group of connoisseurs had more uncertainties. It has six years, the scientists of the IPCC did not go beyond 50% of certainty on the  human being cause of the global heating and its intervals of forecast on the increase of the atmospheric temperature for this century (1,4 and 5,8 degrees Celsius, as the scenes) so were not sharpened as now.

                                   Until that day ,the  alerts   that  came the public were credited to the fundamentalist ambientalists or the apocalyptic esoteric sects , and the  the world-wide authorities did not position themselves  effectively in adopting concrete measures  for its solution. Although it has had world-wide meetings to deal with the subject, from 2nd. half of the passed century, little was obtained to diminish the CO2 emission (carbon dioxide) in the atmosphere, substance that is this e main causer of the  greenhouse effect.

                                   It had diverse world-wide meetings until this date, to try to find a solution, having signature of protocols between the diverse nations that  had made itselves present, being that many of the most developed, and, therefore more industrialized of dispatchers of that pollutant,  had refused to sign, with distrust to harm its economy. The main ones had been:


Toronto, Canada

CN Tower


October, 1988, Toronto, Canada: "Toronto Conference on the Changing Atmosphere". This was the first major international meeting bringing governments and scientists together to discuss action on climate change. At this conference, Industrialised countries' governments pledged to voluntar ily cut CO2 emissions by 20% by the year 2005 (the so-called "Toronto Target"). This meeting was also critical in the establishment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), an international grouping of over 300 of the world's best climat e scientists charged with reviewing and reporting on the latest international science, impacts and  change.


Sundsvall, Sweden  


August, 1990 , Sundsvall, Sweden:     Release of the IPCC's First Assessment Report. This report said 60 to 80% cuts in CO2 emissions would be needed to stabilise the concentration of this green house gas in the atmosphere - already 25% higher than they were before industrialisation started the intensive use of fossil fuels. The strong scientific concern over the dangers of climate change in IPCC First Assessment Report triggered the negotiation of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.                                            


Geneva, Switzerland


November, 1990, Geneva, Switzerland:   Second World Climate Conference – The Ministerial  Declaration converted the IPCC report into a major political push to negotiate a global response to the threat of climate change by calling for negotiations on a framework convention on climate change to begin without delay, and reaffirmed the wish that the convention "contain real commitments by the international community". This declaration reaffirm ed that "where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent such environmental degradation." And further agreed that the "ultimate global objective should be to stabilise greenhouse gas concentrations at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with climate".

UN Headquarters in New York


December, 1990, UN, New York : UN General Assembly Resolution 45/212 established the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee on a Framework Convention on Climate Change (INC) under the auspices of the General Assembly itself with a mandate to develop the convention, if possible by the time of the Earth Summit in June 1992 on December 21, 1990 Change (INC) under the auspices of the General Assembly itself with a mandate to develop the convention, if possible by the time of the Earth Summit in June 1992 on December 21, 1990 February 1991, Chantilly, Washington DC, USA. First Session of Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee on a Framework Convention on Climate Change, marred by diplomatic squabbling over  official  arrangements and outbreak  of  the Gulf War.    


UN peace  symbol



May, 1991, UN New York: Final negotiations concluded, in a late night session, on the UN Framework Convention in Climate Change. As a first step, industrialised countries agreed to bring their CO2 emissions back to 1990 levels by the year 2000. To the disappointment of most countries, under extreme pressure from the Bush Administration, the emission commitments in the Convention were not  legally-binding.


Rio de Janeiro - Brazil



June 1992, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: In a hail of self-congratulation, the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) was opened   for Signature at the Rio Earth Summit. As at 20-July-98 th e Convention has been   ratified by 175 countries and the   European  




September, 1994: Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) submits a protocol proposal for adoption in Berlin in March 1995, calling for industrialized countries to reduce their  emissions of CO2 byt 20% from  1990 levels by the year 2005.


Berlin, Germany

Brandenburg Gates


March 1995, Berlin, Germany : The Berlin "Climate Summit." The first Ministerial level full meeting of the Convention, also known as the Conference of the Parties (COP 1), was held. The Berlin meeting found that the agreements of the Convention were too weak to meet the objective of protecting the planet from dangerous climate change, particularly as it said nothing about the post-2000 period. Parties agreed the "Berlin Mandate"-to negotiate a Protocol or o ther legal agreement by the time of the third Conference of Parties (COP3) containing specific "emissions limitations and reductions." The AOSIS  protocol  was included only  as an element of negotiations.


Geneva lake, at night


August, 1995, Geneva, Switzerland: First meeting of the Ad Hoc Group on the Berlin Mandate meets.The  US  deploy many  go-slow tatics , calling for more study of the issue.


Coliseus at night – Rome, Italy


December 1995, Rome, Italy: The IPCC Second Assessment Report was published. Involving well over 2000 scientists and experts, the Report concluded that "The balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climate" - that is, we are already seeing the first signs of climate change.


Clock of Flowers – Geneva- Switzerland


July 1996, Geneva, Switzerland: The Second Conference of Parties (COP2). Whilst making little progress on CO2 emission reduction targets for a new Protocol, a major breakthrough occurred when the US announced that it wanted the emission commitments in this protocol to be legally binding. The US also signalled for the first time that it wanted to include emission trading in any new agreement. The vast majority of Ministers present at the meeting signed onto the "Geneva Declaration” which says : a) the new IPCC science provides the basis for “urgently strenghtening action”;b) the world faces "significant, often adverse impacts" from climate change;c)legally binding "significant overall reductions" in greenhouse gas emissions should be negotiated by the next Conference of Parties (COP 3).


Brussels, Belgium , at night


March 1997, Brussels, Belgium: European Union Environment Ministers adopt an emissions reduction target for the Kyoto negotiations of 15% by the year 2010. The EU proposal generated much diplomatic activity at the Sixth Session of the AGBM in Bonn and was attacked vigorously by the USA and Japan.


Plenary Assembly of UN , New York


July, 1997, UN, New York: Five years after the Rio Earth Summit at which the Climate Convention was adopted World leaders meets at a UN General Assembly Special Session to review progress on implementing the commitments made in 1992. With the world environment continuing to deteriorate there was a mood of pessimism over the meeting, with the only concrete progress on the horizon, the Kyoto Protocol negotiations. President Clinton sp oke to the General Assembly saying that " we will bring to the Kyoto conference in December a strong American commitment to realistic and binding limits that will significantly reduce  our emissions of greenhouse gases”.


The riverbank  of Rhein, Bonn, Germany


October, 1997, Bonn, Germany: U.S.A. announces its position for the negotiations of the Protocol of Kyoto, in the direction of a stabilization of gas emissions of greenhouse in the levels of 1990 up to a 2010 and reduction of 5% up to 2015. Japan complains for a nominal target of reduction of emission in 5% up to 2010 in three gases of greenhouse that could not be legally entailed. The complex structure of the proposal could not hide the fact of that, in optimum of the cases, it could lead to a stabilization of the emissions in the developed countries and therefore was never a serious  negotiation tool.


Tower of Kyoto,  Japan



December 1997, Kyoto, Japan: Kyoto Protocol negotiations conclude with the adoption of legally binding greenhouse gas emission targets for all industrialized countries. The Protocol also included provisions for emission trading between industrialized countries. The overall nominal effect of the Kyoto protocol is a reduction of 5.2% by 2010 against 1990 levels. However the agreement has many loopholes and could lead to emissions risin g above 1990 levels (Link to Section 1 of Greenpeace Analysis of the Kyoto Protocol).Under the protocol Japan must reduce by 6%, USA by 7%, and the European Union by 8%. Other countries are allowed to stabilize (New Zealand, Russia, Ukraine), or increase their emissions (Norway 1% and Australia 8%). (Link to bleTa 4 of Greenpeace Analysis of the Kyoto Protocol .

The Rosy House, in Buenos Aires, Argentina

November 1998, Buenos Aires, Argentina: Fourth Conference of the Parties to the Climate Convention. This meeting will be negotiating key issues left unresolved in the Kyoto Protocol neg otiations, including the Clean Development Mechanism, emissions trading, and technology transfer.

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