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Nature  franch Espain

Great Names

To My Master  Espain franch

Universe and World



Natural and Political Law

National Hymn Brazil


Legal Theory



Philosophy and Psychology

The History of Mathematics

History of Numeration

The Universe and the Man        Espain Franch

Thesis – Medicine





Ophthalmology Espain



The Earth and the Moon








Initiation to Music

Weighty Personalities

Mús Score



The West

The West Map

The East English Arabian

The East Map


Cultural Events

National Dates


Poetry of the month

Thought of the Day

Tips to Write






Sacra Literature

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History of the Saints

Santo do Dia








               The COP – 3, in December 12, 1997, in Kyoto, Japan, gives continuity to the negotiations of the previous conference and culminates with the adoption of the Protocol of Kyoto, establishing goals of reduction of effect greenhouse gases , for the main emitting countries, called countries of the “Attached I”. To become effective , the Protocol of Kyoto needs by at least 50 States Parts of the Convention to be confirmed, including the countries of the “Attached I”, which, in 1990, had entered at least 55% of the total CO2 emissions. The Protocol also brings the option of the countries of the “Attached I” to compensate their emissions through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), considering as measure of reduction the sustainable partner-ambient projects, implemented in the developing countries.

               At March 16, 1998, it was opened to signatures. At March 15, 1999, it was ratified. It became effective at February 16, 2005, after the Russia had ratified it at November, 2004.

               The negotiations of the Protocol of Kyoto were concluded, thus, with the adoption of legally obligator goals of the gas emission greenhouse for all the industrialized countries. The Protocol also included provisionses for the emission of commercial gas between industrialized countries. The total nominal effect of the protocol of Kyoto is a reduction of 5.2% up to 2010, being overcome in consideration the 1990 levels. However the agreement has many breaches and could lead the emissions above of levels 1990 (Link Section 1 of the Greenpeace Analysis of the Kyoto Protocol ). Under the Protocol Japan must reduce around 6%, U.S.A. around 7% and, the European Union around 8% return. Other countries have permission to stabilize themselves ( the New Zeland , the Russia, the Ukraine), or to increase their emissions (Norway 1% and Australia 8%). (Link Table 4 of the Greenpeace Analysis of the Kyoto Protocol).

               The Protocol of Kyoto was opened to the signature in March 16, 1998, in New York.

Rosy House, Executive Branch Headquarters, Buenos Aires, Argentina


               November, 1998, Buenos Aires, Argentina: The COP - 4 happen in Buenos Aires, directing the works to implement and to ratify the Protocol of Kyoto. In this meeting the object of the negotiations were the topic-keys not decided in the negotiations of the Protocol of Kyoto, including the Clean Mechanisms of Development, commercial emissions and technology transfer.


Subway, Bonn, Germany


               December , 1999, Bonn, Germany : From October 22, to November, 5, is carried through COP - 5, in Bonn (Germany), giving continuity to the works initiated in Buenos Aires.


International Court , Haia, Holland


               November, 2000, Haia, Holland: It was become fullfilled COP - 6, of 13 the 24 of November, in Haia (the Netherlands). , The negotiations are suspended for the lack in agreement between the Européia Union and the United States in relation to the sumidouros and the activities of change of the use of the land. In Brazil, a Presidential Decree creates the Brazilian Fórum of Climatic Changes.

University of Epidemiology, Bonn, Germany


               June , 2001 - Bonn, Germany: - The quarrels are retaken in the COP - 6 ½, in 27 of June, Bonn (Germany), already without counting on the United States, that if remove under the allegation of that the costs for the reduction of emissions very would be raised for the North American economy. The United States also contest the absence of goals of reduction for the countries of the South, in special China, India and Brazil. Valley to remember that the United States are responsible for about 25% of the global emissions of effect gases in agreement greenhouse the used registers of 1990 as parameter.


               July , 2001 - Bonn, Germany: The Protocol of Kyoto was authenticated in Bonn, Germany, when it softened the fulfilment of the foreseen goals previously, through the creation of the “sumidouros of carbon”. As this proposal, the countries that had great florestadas areas, that absorbs Co2 of course, could use these forests as credit in exchange for the control of its emissions. Due to necessity to keep its industrial production, the developed countries, the emitting greaters of Co2 and other pollutants, they could transfer part of its more pollutant industries to countries where the emission level is low or to invest in these countries, as negotiation part.


Sight seen, Marrakesh, Morocco


               October, 2001, Marrakesh, Morocco: It enters 29 of October and 10 of November it happens COP- 7.


Sight seen of Johannesburg, África of the South


               September, 2002 - Johannesburg, Africa of the South: The World-wide Cupola on Sustainable Development (Rio+10) happens enters days 26 of August and 4 of September, in Johannesburg, Africa of the South. The international negotiations do not have great advances. But the quarrel is initiated there on the establishment of goals of use of sources renewed in the energy matrix of the countries.


The Temple of Gold, in New Delli, in Índia


               October , 2002 - New Delli, India: It enters days 23 of October and 1° of November happens COP - 8, in New Undid, India.

Sight seen of Moscow, at night, in Russia


               September, 2003 - Moscow, Russia: The World-wide conference on Climatic Changes, carried through in Moscow enters 29 of September and 3 of October, had as objective the ratification of the Protocol of Kyoto for Russia. Ahead of the economic unreliability of the Russians, President Vladimir Putin did not ratify the Protocol and postponed its decision for as the semester of 2004. The Russian government also strengthened the scientific uncertainties on the existence of the global heating, following the speech of the American government, what it is inconceivable since many scientific studies agree that the global heating is in course and that gives for atinentes reasons the activities human beings. In November of 2004 Russia ratified the Protocol of Kyoto.

               February , 2005: The Protocol of Kyoto became effective on February 16, 2005.

               1ª. Evaluation of Results: Foreseen 2008.

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